The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
1 All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
2 This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
3 The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
(1) The ratification of the conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same.
Done in Convention by the unanimous consent of the States present the Seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one Thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth IN WITNESS whereof We have hereunto subscribed our names,
George Washington, President and Deputy from Virginia
New Hampshire -- John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman
Massachusetts -- Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King
Connecticut -- William Samual Johnson, Rodger Sherman
New York --Alexander Hamilton
New Jersey -- William Livingston, David Brearley, William Paterson, Jonathan Dayton
Pennsylvania -- Benjemin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, Geofrey Clymer, Thomas FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv. Morris
Deleware -- Geofrey Read, Gunning Bedford Jr., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom
Maryland -- James McHenry, Daniel of St. Thomas’ Jenifer, Daniel, Carroll
Virginia --John Blair, James Madison Jr.
North Carolina -- William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson
South Carolina -- J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler
Georgia -- William Few, Arbraham Baldwin
Attest: William Jackson, Secretary.
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Last modified 14 Feb 2003